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eZ Publish (5.x)

eZ Publish 5.x | For eZ Platform & eZ Studio topics see Technical manual and User manual, for eZ Publish 4.x and Legacy topics see eZ Publish legacy

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We will start by going through the various ways to find and retrieve content from eZ Publish using the API. While this will be covered in further , dedicated documentation, it is necessary to explain a few basic concepts of the Public API. In the following recipes, you will learn about the general principles of the API as they are introduced in individual recipes.

Table of Contents

Displaying values from a Content item

In this recipe, we will see how to fetch a Content instance from the repository, and obtain its Field's content. 

Let's first see the full code. You can see the Command line version at https://github.com/ezsystems/CookbookBundle/blob/master/EzSystems/CookBookBundle/Command/ViewContentCommand.php.

Code Block
languagephp
titleViewing content
linenumberstrue
$repository = $this->getContainer()->get( 'ezpublish.api.repository' );
$contentService = $repository->getContentService();
$contentTypeService = $repository->getContentTypeService();
$fieldTypeService = $repository->getFieldTypeService();

try
{
    $content = $contentService->loadContent( 66 );
    $contentType = $contentTypeService->loadContentType( $content->contentInfo->contentTypeId );
    // iterate over the field definitions of the content type and print out each field's identifier and value
    foreach( $content$contentType->contentType->fieldDefinitions as $fieldDefinition )
    {
		// ignore ezpage         if( $fieldDefinition->fieldTypeIdentifier == 'ezpage' )
            continue;
        $output->write( $fieldDefinition->identifier . ": " );
        $fieldType = $fieldTypeService->getFieldType( $fieldDefinition->fieldTypeIdentifier );
        $field = $content->getField( $fieldDefinition->identifier );

		// We use the Field's toHash() method to get readable content out of the Field
        $valueHash = $fieldType->toHash( $field->value );
        $output->writeln( $valueHash );
    }
}
catch( \eZ\Publish\API\Repository\Exceptions\NotFoundException $e )
{
    // if the id is not found
    $output->writeln( "No content with id $contentId" );
}
catch( \eZ\Publish\API\Repository\Exceptions\UnauthorizedException $e )
{
    // not allowed to read this content
    $output->writeln( "Anonymous users are not allowed to read content with id $contentId" );
}

...

Code Block
languagephp
linenumberstrue
$repository = $this->getContainer()->get( 'ezpublish.api.repository' );
$contentService = $repository->getContentService();
$contentTypeService = $repository->getContentTypeService();
$fieldTypeService = $repository->getFieldTypeService();

...

Everything starting from line 5 is about getting our Content , and iterating over its Fields. You can see that the whole logic is part of a try/catch block. Since the Public API uses Exceptions for error handling, this is strongly encouraged, as it will allow you to conditionally catch the various errors that may happen. We will cover the exceptions we expect in a next paragraph.

The first thing we do is use the Content Service to load a Content item using its ID, 66: $contentService->loadContent( 66 ). As you can see on the API doc page, this method expects a Content ID, and returns a Content Value Object.

Code Block
languagephp
linenumberstrue
foreach( $content$contentType->contentType->fieldDefinitions as $fieldDefinition )
{
    // ignore ezpage
    if( $fieldDefinition->fieldTypeIdentifier == 'ezpage' )
        continue;
    $output->write( $fieldDefinition->identifier . ": " );
    $fieldType = $fieldTypeService->getFieldType( $fieldDefinition->fieldTypeIdentifier );
    $field$fieldValue = $content->getField>getFieldValue( $fieldDefinition->identifier );
    $valueHash = $fieldType->toHash( $field->value$fieldValue );
    $output->writeln( $valueHash );
}

...

It iterates over the Content's (Content Object) fields using the ContentType's (Content Class) FieldDefinitions (Content Class Attribute) ($content$contentType->contentType->fieldDefinitions).

For each Field Definition (Content Class Attribute), we start by displaying its identifier ($fieldDefinition->identifier). We then get the FieldType (Datatype) instance using the FieldType Service ($fieldTypeService->getFieldType( $fieldDefinition->fieldTypeIdentifier )). This method expects the requested FieldType's identifier, as a string (ezstring, ezxmltext...), and returns an eZ\Publish\API\Repository\FieldType object.

The Field Value object (Content Object Attribute) is obtained using the getFieldgetFieldValue() method of the Content Value Object which we obtained using ContentService::loadContent().

Using this the FieldType object, we can convert the Field 's value Value to a hash using the toHash() method, provided by every FieldType. This method returns a native primitive type (string, hash) out of a Field instance.

With this example, you should get a first idea of on how you interact with the API. Everything is done through services, each service being responsible of for a specific part of the repository (Content, FieldType..., etc).

Info
titleLoading Content in different languages

Since we didn't specify any language code, our Field objects object is returned in the default language, depending on your languages settings in ezpublish.yml. If you want to use a non-default given Content item's main language. If you'd prefer it to fall back to the SiteAccess language(s), then take advantage of TranslationHelpers. Or if you want to use an altogether different language, you can specify a language code in the getField() call:

Code Block
languagephp
$content->getField>getFieldValue( $fieldDefinition->identifier, 'fre-FR' )

...

As said earlier, the Public API uses Exceptions to handle errors. Each method of the API may throw different exceptions, depending on what it does. Which exceptions can be thrown is usually documented for each method. In our case, loadContent() may throw two type types of exceptions: NotFoundException if , if the requested ID wasnisn't found, and UnauthorizedException if the currently logged in user isn't allowed to view the requested content.

It is a good practice to cover each exception you expect to happen. In this case, since our Command takes the content ID as a parameter, this ID may either not exist, or the referenced content may not be visible to our user. Both cases are covered with explicit error messages.

Browsing Locations

 

Traversing a Location subtree

This recipe shows will show how to browse traverse a subtree starting from a given location. (Full code here)

 

...

Location's subtree. The full code implements a command that takes a Location ID as an argument, and recursively prints this location's subtree.

Info
titleFull code

https://github.com/ezsystems/CookbookBundle/blob/master/Command/BrowseLocationsCommand.php

In this code, we introduce the LocationService. This service is used to interact with locations (eZ Publish 4 nodes). We use two methods from this service: loadLocation(), and loadLocationChildren().

try
Code Block
languagephp
titlebrowse locations
Loading a location
try
{
            // load the starting location and browse
            $location = $this->locationService->loadLocation( $locationId );
            $this->browseLocation( $location, 0, $output );
        }
        catchcatch ( \eZ\Publish\API\Repository\Exceptions\NotFoundException $e )
        {
            // react on location was not found
            $output->writeln( "No<error>No location found with id $locationId$locationId</error>" );
        }
        catch( \eZ\Publish\API\Repository\Exceptions\UnauthorizedException $e )
        {
            // react on permission denied
            $output->writeln( "Anonymous<error>Current users are not allowed to read location with id $locationId$locationId</error>" );
        }

 

 

 

}

As for the ContentService, loadLocation() returns a  Value Object, here a Location. Errors are handled with exceptions: NotFoundException if the Location ID couldn't be found, and UnauthorizedException if the current repository user isn't allowed to view this location.

/** * this method prints out the location name and calls this method recursive for the locations children * * @param \eZ\Publish\API\Repository\Values\Content\Location $location * @param int $depth the current depth * @param OutputInterface $output */
Code Block
languagephp
titleThe method browseLocation
Iterating over a Location's children
private function browseLocation( Location $location, $depth, OutputInterface $output), {$depth         // indent according to depth and write out the name of the content
        for( $k=0; $k<$depth; $k++)
        = 0 )
{
    $childLocationList        $output->write( ' ' );
        }
        $output->writeln( $location->contentInfo->name = $this->locationService->loadLocationChildren( $location, $offset = 0, $limit = -1 );
        // getIf locationoffset children and browselimit had been specified to something else then "all", $childrenthen = $this->locationService->loadLocationChildren( $location );
    $childLocationList->totalCount contains the total count for iteration use
    foreach ( $children$childLocationList->locations as $childLocation )
        {
            $this->browseLocation( $childLocation, $output, $depth + 1, $output );
        }
    }}

LocationService::loadLocationChildren() returns a LocationList Value Objects that we can iterate over.

Note that unlike loadLocation(), we don't need to care for permissions here: the currently logged in user's permissions will be respected when loading children, and locations that can't be viewed won't be returned at all.

Info
titleUsed classes

Viewing Content Meta Data

...

Full code

Should you need more advanced children fetching methods, the SearchService is what you are looking for.

Viewing Content Meta Data

Content is a central piece in the Public API. You will often need to start from a Content item, and dig in from its metadata. Basic content metadata is made available through ContentInfo objects. This Value Object mostly provides primitive fields: contentTypeId, publishedDate or mainLocationId. But it is also used to request further Content related Value Objects from various services.

The full example implements an ezpublish:cookbook:view_content_metadata command that prints out all the available metadata, given a content ID.

Info
titleFull code

https://github.com/ezsystems/CookbookBundle/blob/master/Command/ViewContentMetaDataCommand.php

We introduce here several new services: URLAliasService, UserService and SectionService. The concept should be familiar to you now.

// get the services from the repsitory
Code Block
languagephp
titleviewing content meta data
Services initialization
/** @var $repository \eZ\Publish\API\Repository\Repository */
$repository = $this->getContainer()->get( 'ezpublish.api.repository' );
$contentService = $repository->getContentService();
        $locationService = $repository->getLocationService();
        $urlAliasService = $repository->getURLAliasService();
        $userService $sectionService = $repository->getUserService>getSectionService();
        $sectionService $userService = $repository->getSectionService>getUserService();

        // load the admin user and set it has current user in the repository
        $user 

Setting the Repository User

Tip

In a command line script, the repository runs as if executed by the anonymous user. In order to identify it as a different user, you need to use the UserService as follows:

Code Block
languagephp
$administratorUser = $userService->loadUser( 14 );
$repository->setCurrentUser( 
$user ); try {
$administratorUser );

This may be crucial when writing maintenance or synchronization scripts.

This is of course not required in template functions or controller code, as the HTTP layer will take care of identifying the user, and automatically set it in the repository.

The ContentInfo Value Object

We will now load a ContentInfo object using the provided ID and use it to get our Content's meta data

Code Block
languagephp
$contentInfo = $contentService->loadContentInfo( $contentId );

            

Locations

Code Block
languagephp
titleGetting Content Locations
// show all locations of the content
            $locations = $locationService->loadLocations( $contentInfo );
            $output->writeln( "Locations:<info>LOCATIONS</info>" );
            foreachforeach ( $locations as $location )
            {
    $urlAlias = $urlAliasService->reverseLookup( $location );
       $output->write>writeln( "  Location: $location->pathString  ($urlAlias->path)" );
// the path build from id's
                // printout the url alias
                $urlAlias = $urlAliasService->reverseLookup( $location );
                $output->writeln( " URLAlias: $urlAlias->path" );
            }

            }

We first use LocationService::loadLocations() to get the Locations for our ContentInfo. This method returns an array of Location Value Objects. In this example, we print out the Location's path string (/path/to/content). We also use URLAliasService::reverseLookup() to get the location's main URLAlias.

Note
titleLimitations with multi-location

(version <= 5.2)

When Content has multiple Locations, note that sorting on Location properties cannot  work correctly. It's a limitation by design : SortClause\LocationPriority will not be limited to the locations under Criterion\ParentLocationId.

Info
titleLocation Search in 5.3

This limitation does not exist in Location Search. Migrating to version 5.3 adds the Location Search feature, and removes this limitation.
With Location Search, usage of Location Criterions and Sort Clauses with Content Search is deprecated. If search by Location properties is needed Location Search should be used.

 

Relations

We now want to list relations from and to our Content. Since relations are versioned, we need to feed the ContentService::loadRelations() with a VersionInfo object. We can get the current version's VersionInfo using ContentService::loadVersionInfo(). If we had been looking for an archived version, we could have specified the version number as the second argument to this method.

Code Block
languagephp
titleBrowsing a Content's relations
// show all relations of the current version
            $versionInfo = $contentService->loadVersionInfo( $contentInfo );
            $relations = $contentService->loadRelations( $versionInfo );
if ( count( $relations ) )
{
     $output->writeln( "Relations:<info>RELATIONS</info>" );
            foreachforeach ( $relations as $relation )
            {
                $name = $relation->destinationContentInfo->name;
                $output->write( "  Relation of type ");                 $output->write( . $this->outputRelationType( $relation->type ) );
                $output->writeln( . " to content $name" );
    }
       }

            }

We can iterate over the Relation objects array we got from loadRelations(), and use these Value Objects to get data about our relations. It has two main properties: destinationContentInfo, and sourceContentInfo. They also hold the relation type (embed, common...), and the optional Field this relations is made with.

ContentInfo properties

We can of course get our Content's metadata by using the Value Object's properties.

Code Block
languagephp
titlePrimitive object metadata
// show meta data
            $output->writeln( "Name: $contentInfo->name\n<info>METADATA</info>" );
$output->writeln( "  <info>Name:</info> " . $contentInfo->name );
    $output->writeln( "Type:  <info>Type:</info> " .$contentInfo $contentType->contentType->identifier );
            $output->writeln( "Last  <info>Last modified:</info> " . $contentInfo->modificationDate->format( 'Y-m-d' ) );
            $output->writeln( "Published:  <info>Published:</info> ". $contentInfo->publishedDate->format( 'Y-m-d' ) );
            $output->writeln( "RemoteId:  <info>RemoteId:</info> $contentInfo->remoteId" );
            $output->writeln( "Main  <info>Main Language:</info> $contentInfo->mainLanguageCode" );
            $output->writeln( "Always avaialble: <info>Always available:</info> " . ( $contentInfo->alwaysAvailable==1 ? 'Yes' : 'No' ) );
            

Owning user

We can use UserService::loadUser() with content ownerId property of our ContentInfo to load the Content's owner as a User Value Object.

Code Block
languagephp
$owner = $userService->loadUser( $contentInfo->ownerId );
            $output->writeln( "Owner:  <info>Owner:</info> " . $owner->contentInfo->name );
            
Info

To get the current version's creator, and not the content's owner, you need to use the creatorId property from the current version's VersionInfo object.

Section

The section's ID can be found in the sectionId property of the ContentInfo object. To get the matching Section Value Object, you need to use the SectionService::loadSection() method.

Code Block
languagephp
$section = $sectionService->loadSection( $contentInfo->sectionId );
            $output->writeln( "Section:  <info>Section:</info> $section->name" );

Versions

To conclude we can also iterate over the Content's version, as VersionInfo Value Objects.

Code Block
languagephp
$versionInfoArray = $contentService->loadVersions( $contentInfo );
if ( count( $versionInfoArray ) )
{
  // show versions
            $versionInfos = $contentService->loadVersions( $contentInfo $output->writeln( "\n<info>VERSIONS</info>" );
            foreach ( $versionInfos$versionInfoArray as $versionInfo )
            {
                $creator = $userService->loadUser( $versionInfo->creatorId );
                $output->write( "  Version $versionInfo->versionNo: '" );
        $output->write( " by "     $output->write( . $creator->contentInfo->name );
                $output->writeln( "' " . $this->outputStatus( $versionInfo->status ) . " " . $versionInfo->initialLanguageCode );
            }
        }
        catch( }

We use the ContentService::loadVersions() method, and get an array of VersionInfo objects.

In this section we will cover how the SearchService can be used to search for Content, by using a Query and a combinations of Criteria you will get a SearchResult object back containing list of Content and count of total hits. In the future this object will also include facets, spell checking and "more like this" when running on a backend that supports it (for instance Solr).

Performing a simple full text search

Info
titleFull code

https://github.com/ezsystems/CookbookBundle/blob/master/Command/FindContentCommand.php

In this recipe, we will run a simple full text search over every compatible attribute.

Query and Criterion objects

We introduce here a new object: Query. It is used to build up a Content query based on a set of Criterion objects.

Code Block
languagephp
titleversion <= Ez Publish 5.2
$query = new \eZ\Publish\API\Repository\Exceptions\NotFoundException $e )
        {
            // if the id is not found
            $output->writeln( "No content with id $contentId" );
        }
        catch( \Values\Content\Query();
$query->criterion = new Query\Criterion\FullText( $text );
Code Block
languagephp
titleversion >= Ez Publish 5.3
$query = new \eZ\Publish\API\Repository\Values\Content\Query();
$query->filter = new Query\Criterion\FullText( $text );

 

Multiple criteria can be grouped together using "logical criteria", such as LogicalAnd or LogicalOr. Since in this case we only want to run a text search, we simply use a FullText criterion object.

Info

The full list of criteria can be found on your installation in the following directory vendor/ezsystems/ezpublish-kernel/eZ/Publish/API/Repository/Values/Content/Query/Criterion. Additionally you may look at integration tests like vendor/ezsystems/ezpublish-kernel/eZ/Publish/API/Repository/Tests/SearchServiceTest.php for more details on how these are used.

NB: Be aware that the links point to code in the upcoming version (master) and might not represent the criteria in your eZ Publish version.

Note
titleCriterion independence before 5.3

Note the criterion independance : Criterion are not related to each other by design and this can lead to a limitation in Content Search. See an example in the Criterion Independance example page.

Running the search query and using the results

The Query object is given as an argument to SearchService::findContent(). This method returns a SearchResult object. This object provides you with various information about the search operation (number of results, time taken, spelling suggestions, or facets, as well as of course, the results themselves.

Code Block
languagephp
$result = $searchService->findContent( $query );
$output->writeln( 'Found ' . $result->totalCount . ' items' );
foreach ( $result->searchHits as $searchHit )
{
    $output->writeln( $searchHit->valueObject->contentInfo->name );
}

The searchHits properties of the SearchResult object is an array of SearchHit objects. In valueObject property of SearchHit, you will find the Content object that match the given Query.

Tip: If you you are searching using a unique identifier, for instance using the content id or content remote id criterion, then you can use SearchService::findSingle(), this takes a Criterion and returns a single Content item, or throws NotFound exception if none is found.

Performing an advanced search

Info
titleFull code

https://github.com/ezsystems/CookbookBundle/blob/master/Command/FindContent2Command.php

As explained in the previous chapter, Criterion objects are grouped together using Logical criteria. We will now see how multiple criteria objects can be combined into a fine grained search Query.

Code Block
languagephp
use eZ\Publish\API\Repository\Exceptions\UnauthorizedException $e )
        {
            // not allowed to read this content
            $output->writeln( "Anonymous users are not allowed to read content with id $contentId" );
        }

This script produces e.g the follwing output:

Code Block
languagenone
Locations:
  Location: /1/2/103/  URLAlias: /testrootfolder
  Location: /1/2/94/106/  URLAlias: /Partner-Section/testrootfolder
Relations:
  Relation of type EMBED to content Multivariate Testing
  Relation of type EMBED to content test
Name: testrootfolder
Type: folder
Last modified: 2012-11-12
Published: 2012-11-06
RemoteId: 32d63a1493208f6d0e2d40ab25749af4
Main Language: eng-US
Always avaialble: Yes
Owner: Administrator User
Section: Standard
Version 1: 'Administrator User' ARCHIVED eng-US
Version 2: 'Administrator User' PUBLISHED eng-US


 

Performing a simple full text search

In this recipe a simple full text search is performed. (Full code here)

Code Block
languagephp
titlea simple full text search
Values\Content\Query\Criterion;
use eZ\Publish\API\Repository\Values\Content;
 
// [...]
 
$query = new Query();
$criterion1 = new Criterion\Subtree( $locationService->loadLocation( 2 )->pathString );
$criterion2 = new Criterion\ContentTypeIdentifier( 'folder' );
$query->criterion = new Criterion\LogicalAnd(
    array( $criterion1, $criterion2 )
);
 
$result = $searchService->findContent( $query );

A Subtree criterion limits the search to the subtree with pathString, which looks like: /1/2/. A ContentTypeId Criterion to limit the search to Content of ContentType 1. Those two criteria are grouped with a LogicalAnd operator. The query is executed as before, with SearchService::findContent().

Performing a fetch like search

Info
titleFull code

https://github.com/ezsystems/CookbookBundle/blob/master/Command/FindContent3Command.php

A search isn't only meant for searching, it also provides the future interface for what you in eZ Publish 4.x would know as a content "fetch". And as this is totally backend agnostic, in future eZ Publish 5.x versions this will be powered by either Solr or ElasticSearch meaning it also replaces "ezfind" fetch functions.

Following the examples above we now change it a bit to combine several criteria with both a AND and a OR condition.

Code Block
languagephp
use eZ\Publish\API\Repository\Values\Content\Query\Criterion;
use eZ\Publish\API\Repository\Values\Content;
 
// [...]
 
$query = new Query();
$query->criterion = new Criterion\LogicalAnd(
    array(
        new Criterion\ParentLocationId( 2 ),
        new Criterion\LogicalOr(
            array(
       // get the repository from the di container         $repository = $this->getContainer()->get( 'ezpublish.api.repositorynew Criterion\ContentTypeIdentifier( 'folder' );,
         // get the services from repository  new Criterion\ContentTypeId( 2 )
   $searchService = $repository->getSearchService();       )
  // create and execute the query and)
print out the result )
);
 
$result = $searchService->findContent(   $query = new \$query );

ParentLocationId criterion limits the search to the children of location 2. An array of "ContentTypeId" Criteria to limit the search to Content of ContentType's with id 1 or 2 grouped in a LogicalOr operator. Those two criteria are grouped with a LogicalAnd operator. As always the query is executed as before, with SearchService::findContent().

Tip: Want to do a subtree filter ( in 4.x: fetch( 'content', 'tree' ) )? Change the location filter to use the Subtree criterion filter as shown in the advanced search example above.

Using in() instead of OR

The above example is fine, but it can be optimized a bit by taking advantage of the fact that all filter criteria support being given an array of values (IN operator) instead of as single value (EQ operator).

If your on eZ Publish 5.1+ you can use the new ContentTypeIdentifier Criterion:

Code Block
languagephp
titleeZ Publish 5.1+ (2013.01+)
use eZ\Publish\API\Repository\Values\Content\Query()\Criterion;
        $query->criterion = new \use eZ\Publish\API\Repository\Values\Content\Query\Criterion\FullText( $text );
 
// [...]
 
$query =   $result = $searchService->findContent( $query new Query();
$query->criterion = new Criterion\LogicalAnd(
    $output->writelnarray(
'Found ' . $result->totalCount . ' items' ); new Criterion\ParentLocationId( 2 ),
    foreach( $result->searchHits as $searchHit )new Criterion\ContentTypeIdentifier( array( 'article', 'folder' ) )
  {  )
);
 
$result        $output->writeln( $searchHit->valueObject->contentInfo->name );
        }
        
Info
titleused classes

Performing an advanced search

In this recipe different criteria is combined using a logic 'AND' operation. The result is restricted additional (see recipe 9) to a given content type and subtree. (Full code here)

Code Block
languagephp
// create the query with three critions and print out the result
$query = new \= $searchService->findContent( $query );

Tip: All filter criteria are capable of doing an "IN" selection, the ParentLocationId above could f.e. have been provided "array( 2, 43 )" to include second level children in both your content tree (2) and your media tree (43). 

Performing a pure search count

In many cases you might need the number of Content items matching a search, but with no need to do anything else with the results.
Thanks to the fact that the "searchHits" property of the SearchResult object always refers to the total amount, it is enough to run a standard search and set $limit to 0. This way no results will be retrieved, and the search will not be slowed down, even when the number of matching results is huge.

 

Code Block
languagephp
use eZ\Publish\API\Repository\Values\Content\Query();
$criterion1 
= new Criterion\FullText( $text );
$location = $locationService->loadLocation( $locationId );
$criterion2 = new Criterion\Subtree( $location->pathString ); // restrict results to belong to the given subtree
$criterion3 = new Criterion\ContentTypeId( $contentTypeId ); // restrict to the given content type
$query->criterion = new Criterion\LogicalAND(
    array( $criterion1, $criterion2, $criterion3 )
);// [...]
 
$query = new Query();
$query->limit = 0;
 
// [...] ( Add criteria as shown above )
 
$resultCount = $searchService->findContent( $query )->totalCount;